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How To Teach Multiplication Facts

Thaddeus Falana M.ed - Tuesday, June 07, 2011

How to teach multiplication facts

By: Thaddeus Falana, M.Ed

 

Many elementary and middle school students struggle with math because of their inability to recall multiplication facts.  It is imperative that students learn the multiplication tables as it is used in division, fractions and other higher level math skills.  If you are a parent and are looking to assist your child with his/her multiplication facts, here are a few steps to help you along the way:

 

Step 1

 

2

3

4

5

10

11

2 x 1

3 x 1

4 x 1

5 x 1

10 x 1

11 x 1

2 x 2

3 x 2

4 x 2

5 x 2

10 x 2

11 x 2

2 x 3

3 x 3

4 x 3

5 x 3

10 x 3

11 x 3

2 x 4

3 x 4

 

5 x 4

10 x 4

11 x 4

2 x 5

3 x 5

 

5 x 5

10 x 5

11 x 5

2 x 6

3 x 6

 

5 x 6

10 x 6

11 x 6

2 x 7

3 x 7

 

5 x 7

10 x 7

11 x 7

2 x 8

3 x 8

 

5 x 8

10 x 8

11 x 8

2 x 9

3 x 9

 

5 x 9

10 x 9

11 x 9

2 x 10

3 x 10

4 x 10

5 x 10

10 x 10

 

2 x 11

3 x 11

4 x 11

5 x 11

10 x 11

 

 

  • The 2’s table is fairly easy as one would need to learn how to count by 2’s. 
  • The 3’s are similar as well. Teach your child how to count by 3’s. 
  • Once your child knows how to count by 2’s and 3’s, drill him/her daily just on those facts.  Your child will learn how to quickly count by 2’s and 3’s until it is memorized.
  • Next, turn your attention to bottom half of the 2’s and 3’s.  Let your child know that any number multiplied by 10 is that number plus a zero.  i.e. 2 x 10 = 20, 3 x 10 = 30, 4 x 10 = 40, 10 x 10 = 100 etc.  In addition, any number up to 9 that is multiplied by 11 is that number written twice. i.e. 2 x 11 = 22, 3 x 11= 33, 4 x 11= 44, 9 x 11 = 99 etc.
  • Drill your child with flash cards everyday until facts are memorized.
  • Next, address the 4 times table.  Your child will already know 4 x1 through 4 x 4 because he/has already memorized the inverse of these facts.  i.e. 4 x1 = 1 x 4, 4 x 2 = 2 x 4, 4 x 3 = 3 x 4.  Your child will also have already master 4 x 10 as well as 4 x 11.
  • Again, drill your child with flash cards everyday until facts are memorized.
  • Move on to the 5 times table.  This step is easy as your child will need to learn how to count by 5’s.  The same technique used for the 2’s and 3’s will be used for the 5’s.
  • Again, drill your child with flash cards everyday until facts are memorized
  • The 10’s are also pretty simple as the rule states that any number multiplied by 10 is that number plus a zero.
  • The 11’s also follow a similar rule as any number up to 9 that is multiplied by 11 is that number written twice. i.e. 9 x 11 = 99, 8 x 11 = 88, 7 x 11 = 77 etc.
  • Again, drill your child with flash cards everyday until facts are memorized

 

Step 2

6

7

8

6 x 1

7 x 1

8 x 1

6 x 2

7 x 2

8 x 2

6 x 3

7 x 3

8 x 3

 

  • You will not have to spend much time on the above facts.  Your child will already have a good understanding as he/she should have already memorized through drilling, their inverses.  i.e. 6 x 1= 1 x 6, 6 x 2 = 2 x 6, 7 x 2 = 2 x 7, 8 x 3 = 3 x 8.
  • Again, drill your child with flash cards everyday until facts are memorized

 

Step 3

 

4

7

8

11

12

4 x 7

7 x 4

8 x 4

11 x 11

12 x 11

4 x 8

7 x 6

8 x 7

11 x 12

12 x 12

 

7 x 8

8 x 8

 

 

  • The above facts are the most challenging and will require rote memorization.  Drill using flashcards to help your child memorize the above.
  • Again, drill your child with flash cards everyday until facts are memorized

 

Step 4

6

7

8

6 x 5

7 x 5

8 x 5

 

  • The above follows the inverse rule of multiplication.  If your child has already memorized his/her 5’s table then the inverse of 6 x 5 = 5 x 6.  The same goes for 7 x 5 and 8 x 5.

 

Step 5

6 x 6

6 x 4

6 x 8

 

  • Above are math facts that rhyme. i.e. 6 x 6 = 36, 6 x 4 = 24, 6 x 8 = 48.
  • Again, drill your child with flash cards everyday until facts are memorized

 

Step 6

9 x 1

9 x 2

9 x 3

9 x 4

9 x 5

9 x 6

9 x 7

9 x 8

9 x 9

9 x 10

 

Use the following trick to teach the 9 times table:

  • Hold your hands in front of you with your fingers spread out
  • For 9 x 3 bend your third finger down. (9 x 4 would be the fourth finger etc.)
  • You have 2 fingers in front of the bent finger and 7 after the bent finger.
  • Therefore the answer must be 27.
  • This technique works for the 9 times tables up to 10.

 

Step 7

12 x 1

12 x 2

12 x 3

12 x 4

12 x 5

12 x 6

12 x 7

12 x 8

12 x 9

12 x 10

 

  • Your child should know all of his/her 11 times table by now.  If you know your 11’s, then any number up to 10 that is multiplied by 12 should be easy to figure out.  For example, if asked 12 x 9, then you should know that 12 x 9 = 9 x 12.  If 9 x 11 is 99, and we add 9 to 99, we should have our answer.  12 x 9 =  99 + 9 =  108.
  • Any number multiplied by 12 should be treated as such.  If you know the answer of that number multiplied by 11 then you should be able to add the factor to the product and get your answer.  i.e. What is 8 x 12?  Well, 8 x 11 = 88, therefore, 88 + 8 = 96, thus 8 x 12 = 96.

 

Again, drill your child with flash cards everyday until facts are memorized

 

It is recommended that parents purchase workbooks that offer ample worksheets for your child to use for practice.  Visit: www-one-on-onetutor.com and visit the bookstore which offers a wide array of student workbook.

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